Poster C25, Sunday, March 25, 1:00-3:00 pm, Exhibit Hall C
Local functional connectivity development in early childhood: Associations with socioeconomic status
Ursula A Tooley1, Allyson P Mackey1; 1University of Pennsylvania
Mounting evidence suggests that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with accelerated structural brain development. However, this presents a paradox, as lower SES is not typically associated with accelerated cognitive development. Further, it is unclear how and when SES disparities emerge over the course of development. We examined the development of resting-state functional connectivity in early childhood (ages 3-10, n = 64, Pediatric Imaging Neurocognition & Genetics dataset), and tested whether SES was associated with alterations in developmental trajectories. We focused on regional homogeneity (ReHo), a whole-brain approach that compares each voxel’s blood oxygen time course to its neighboring voxels, yielding an estimate of local functional connectivity. In adults, ReHo is highest in sensorimotor regions and in the default mode network (DMN), perhaps reflecting domain-specific local processing in the former and a modular, tightly coupled network in the latter. We found that, in young children, ReHo is also high in sensorimotor regions. We found that ReHo decreased with age in sensorimotor regions, and increased in the DMN (corrected at p < .05 with FSL’s randomise). Children from higher SES backgrounds showed faster developmental changes in these regions than children from lower SES backgrounds. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and ReHo in an area of right anterior inferior frontal gyrus at the intersection of three networks: default mode, frontoparietal, and ventral attention (Yeo et al., 2011). Our findings suggest that SES may have an impact on the development of local connectivity across multiple cortical networks.
Topic Area: EXECUTIVE PROCESSES: Development & aging