Poster C66, Sunday, March 25, 1:00-3:00 pm, Exhibit Hall C
Biasing Memory Replay During Sleep: A Quantitative Synthesis of Targeted Memory Reactivation Effects
Xiaoqing Hu1, Larry Y. Cheng2, Ken A. Paller2; 1The University of Hong Kong, 2Northwestern University
Many correlative findings suggest that memory reactivation during sleep contributes to memory stabilization. Compelling support for this idea has also been provided by studies using sensory input during sleep to directly manipulate neural processing (i.e., Targeted Memory Reactivation, TMR). Here we present a comprehensive meta-analysis of currently available TMR datasets (46 articles with 1,666 participants) to estimate overall effect size and identify possible boundary conditions with moderator analyses. Moderators included 1) stimulation state, sleep vs. wake; 2) stimulation sleep stage, N2 vs. N3 vs. N2/N3 vs. REM; 3) stimulation modality, auditory vs. olfactory vs. tactile; and 4) memory type, conditioning vs. declarative vs. skill memory. Our results revealed that overall, TMR is highly effective in modulating memory (Hedge’s g=0.328, 95% Confidence Interval [0.206, 0.447], Z=5.372, p<.001). Moreover, this effect is specific to sleep as TMR did not produce a significant effect during wakefulness, although this conclusion is tempered by the fact that only a small number of types of wakefulness were studied. For other moderators, TMR during N3, but not N2 or REM, produced robust effect sizes. As for stimulation modality, both auditory and olfactory stimulation produced significant effects while the only study using tactile stimulation failed to influence skill memory. Lastly, while all types of learning examined were influenced by TMR, conditioning was associated with the largest effect size, followed by skill memory and declarative memory. In sum, TMR during sleep, and particularly during slow-wave sleep, is effective for promoting memory reactivation and enhancing multiple types of memory.
Topic Area: LONG-TERM MEMORY: Episodic