Poster A13, Saturday, March 25, 5:00 – 7:00 pm, Pacific Concourse
Sexually dimorphic cerebellar findings in children with ADHD
Jina Pakpoor1,2, Deana Crocetti1, Stewart Mostofsky1,2; 1Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA, 2Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Cerebellar differences have been found in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and are increasingly thought to play a role in their presentation, as well as in other neurodevelopmental disorders. However, despite the presence of well-established sex-based differences in the clinical presentation and developmental trajectory of the disorder, the existing imaging literature is limited in examining sex differences due to heavy under-representation of girls in the ADHD literature. We aimed to examine such sex-based differences in the cerebellums of 47 ADHD children (27 girls, 20 boys) and 43 Typically Developing (TD) controls (23 girls, 20 boys) of school-age (9-12 years old). All children were imaged using a 3T Philips-Achieva MRI scanner to acquire MPRAGE images. A high-resolution spatially unbiased atlas template of the cerebellum was used to isolate cerebellar structures for quantification of regional volumes. Statistical outliers were excluded at 3 SD beyond the mean. Multiple cerebellar volumes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced between ADHD girls and TD girls (Grey Matter: left crus 1, left crus 2/7b, vermis 1-5; White Matter: right lobule 6, left lobule 9, left lobule 10; Total Tissue: right lobule 10, left crus 1, left lobule 10). These regions differed from the statistically significant cerebellar structural discrepancies identified between ADHD boys and TD boys (p<0.05) (Grey Matter: left lobule 10; White Matter: right lobule 8). These sexually dimorphic cerebellar findings speak to the importance of considerations of sex-based differences in understanding the mechanisms underlying ADHD, the differing clinical presentations between girls and boys, and therapeutic targets.
Topic Area: EMOTION & SOCIAL: Development & aging